Describe the ECG features seen with hyperkalemia. List at least 5.
How is hyperkalemia managed? How does each intervention work, and how long do the effects typically last?
What are the five most common causes of hypokalemia?
Describe the ECG features seen with hypokalemia. List at least 4.
How is hypokalemia managed?
What are the three main types of hypernatremia? Give 3 examples of each.
List four central and four nephrogenic causes of diabetes insipidus.
What are the four broad categories of hyponatremia?
Give an example of two clinical conditions for each: hypovolemic, euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia.
What are the three most common causes of SIADH?
Describe the management of hyponatremia in the following patients:
Euvolemic with acute hyponatremia
Hypovolemic with chronic hyponatremia
Hypovolemic with acute hyponatremia
What are the five most common causes of hypercalcemia?
What are the five most common symptomatic causes of hypocalcemia seen in the emergency department?
What ECG features are seen in hypercalcemia vs. hypocalcemia? How is each managed?
What are the five most common causes of hypermagnesemia?
List five clinical manifestations of hypermagnesemia.
List five common causes of hypomagnesemia.
What are the five most common causes of hyperphosphatemia?
What are the five most common causes of hypophosphatemia in the ED? How do they manifest clinically?